by Dan Krell
Although the mortgage meltdown and crisis is not new news, new information continues to shed light on what led to the mortgage meltdown. In addition to the scandals and fraud allegations at many levels, many are still unaware of the impact of appraisal practices on present market conditions.
Stories of appraisers being coerced into inflating values or providing favorable appraisals are not news. However, as Justice Department probes expand beyond subprime lenders to some of the country’s largest lenders, we may hear more about how underwriting and appraisal practices played a part in creating the bubble that burst. As the probes expand, we may begin to hear more about appraisals that were artificially inflated by coercion, collusion, and/or fraud. Some appraisers purportedly have already come forward to report how they were forced to provide appraisals that were consistent with an inflating market. Supposed consequences for not complying with lenders’ demands would result in loss of business for the appraiser.
Along with other factors, artificial, fraudulent, or misleading appraisals have played a role in historical mortgage crises, such as the Savings and Loan Crisis (of the 1980’s) and the flipping schemes (of the 1990’s). Prior to the critical mass of the S&L crisis, obtaining a real estate loan seemed relatively easy (at the time); the result was a $120 Billion (plus) government bailout. An article published in the CPA Journal (December 1989) reported that a 1988 FLHBB (now the FHLB) report to Congress referred to fraud and insider abuse as the leading factors leading to the S&L collapse; other factors identified by the report leading to the crisis was the collusion by thrift management, borrowers and appraisers to conceal losses and liabilities.
As a result of the S&L crises, the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) was created. FIRREA was to ensure that type of fraud and abuse that occurred in the S&L crisis would not happen again. Consequently, title XI of FIRREA led to licensure of appraisers, the creation of the Appraisal Foundation, as well as the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP).
In the mid to late 1990’s, mortgage and appraisal fraud hits again in the form of flipping schemes. Although not as widespread as the S&L crisis, the flipping schemes hit the subprime mortgage market very hard. In many cases, flipping schemes used artificially inflated appraisals to net a large gain to the seller (the loan officer, appraiser, and/or title agent were often in collusion).
Interestingly, real estate market declines followed both the S&L crisis and the flipping scandals. The large buyer’s market and recession occurred at the tail end of the S&L crisis in the early 1990’s.
Currently, investigations are reportedly focusing on practices to hide decreased portfolio values sold on secondary markets. In addition to the allegations surrounding appraisals, lenders’ have also used Broker Price Opinions (BPO) to ascertain values on portfolios as well as for lending purposes. BPO’s are usually completed by real estate agents or brokers who typically have no appraisal training; additionally the BPO typically does not follow USPAP.
If it is not yet clear, history is repetitive and cyclical. Our response this time, however, can undermine the next real estate crisis.
This article is not intended to provide nor should it be relied upon for legal and financial advice. This article was originally published in the Montgomery County Sentinel the week of March 10, 2008. Copyright © 2008 Dan Krell.
(Post Script – Today, Congress is to release report outlining causes for present mortgage crisis.)